This is one of the strongest stereotypes in world sports: England’s national football team performed poorly on penalty kicks. This old-fashioned stereotype always seems to be most obvious when England is in the playoffs of the international championships, when England faces its historic opponent Germany. …
This confrontation included two distressing penalty shootouts. With the celebration of the Germans, the British fell into the hands of the British and ended. England will meet Germany again in the 16th round of the playoffs on June 29. For the 2020 European Cup, parts of the country seem to have collectively sighed. The stereotype stipulates that if the game is decided by a penalty kick, England will inevitably lose.
Our research shows that perceptions of England’s poor performance on penalties affect English players and make them perform worse on penalties. In fact, this may prevent British players from performing well at work.
England lost both the World Cup and the European Championships, while Germany’s performance in penalty kicks was impressive. England has won only two of eight matches, while Germany has won six of seven. England has one of the worst results in world football, and Germany has one of the best results.
There is of course another story: England lost to Germany in the 1996 European Cup semi-final penalty shootout, and only 6 years later England suffered the same fate in the 1990 World Cup. Germany has never been defeated. When their playoffs are decided from the penalty spot.
The huge difference in happiness between the two sides fuels the cliché that England are bad on penalties and from their point of view, the confrontation with Germany is particularly dangerous. Experts, journalists and even scholars have helped perpetuate this stereotype in football folklore.
Research shows that this stereotype is far from harmless melodrama, because of the so-called “stereotype threat”-people are worried that their performance will confirm the stereotype, so this stereotype may reduce the chances of England penalties in the future. . Negative attitudes towards the group they belong to.
For example, when girls solve math problems, research shows that if they are reminded in advance of their negative stereotypes about women’s math skills, they will do worse. , Reduce the capacity of working memory and limit its ability to solve problems. Research shows that those who are well-trained and committed to their skills are most vulnerable to stereotypes.
However, stereotyped threats have different effects on sports missions. This is because professional motor skills become automatic with exercise and are likely to be optimized when performed without conscious control. One of these capabilities is punishment.
Punishment execution seems to be interrupted by stereotyped threats, as athletes turn their attention to gradually monitoring their results and interrupt the automatic execution of skills. Therefore, contrary to previous ideas about working memory, stereotyped threats during exercise can affect performance. Not because they distracted from the skills, but because they attract too much attention.
Stereotype threats are being studied in various sports, including basketball, golf, tennis, and even endurance and strength training.
For example, white men participating in a basketball game saw that when they remembered the stereotype that “white men can’t jump”, their performance would be affected. If you remember the gender stereotypes about natural athletic ability, women perform worse in tennis than men, and in football, research shows that female players perform worse in dribbling and shooting. He said beforehand that women play football badly.
In addition to this study, we also examined national stereotypes that the UK is not good at fines. Our interviewees unanimously agreed that “compared to other men’s football matches in the world, England’s performance in penalty kicks is very poor. In our study.
English football players scored less when they remembered this national stereotype. However, when encouraged to question stereotypes, players performed better, were less worried about “wrong”, and received free fines. I mourned for many years in England.
Removal of Stereotypes
Our results indicate that changing the penalty kick stereotype may be the key to allowing the current British team to overcome their poor penalty record. To this end, fans and the media must resist the continuation of the unique stereotypes in England. Penalties are terrible.
The media should avoid constant mention of penalty kicks, and fans should not complain about the idea of shooting. This negative stereotype may encourage players when they feel “everyone thinks we lost in a penalty shootout.” Clearly supervise their work, thereby destroying their natural and automatic capabilities.
Now it is important for players and coaches to actively question negative stereotypes and resist them. For example, players can remind each other that they will be punished while playing for the club, so there is no reason to believe they can. I do the same in international football matches.
Fine stereotypes have positive potential. Our work so far shows that negative feedback from the opposing team often motivates athletes to “prove themselves wrong.” German fans are very happy to quote the record of the England team’s failed penalty shootout. England can use this feedback to prove that punishment is by no means inevitable when it comes to it.